For pre-and-postiches: has the Simla agreement – origin, impact and results been successful? The agreement is the result of the two countries` determination to “end the conflict and confrontation that have so far weighed on their relations.” He designed the steps to be taken to further normalize mutual relations and also defined the principles that should govern their future relations.    The summit conference between Bhutto and Indra Gandhi opened in Simla on the decided date. The summit conference was held from June 28 to July 2, 1972. The objective of the agreement was to define the measures envisaged to normalize bilateral relations and to resolve mutual disputes through peaceful means and bilateral negotiations. India wanted to solve all the problems in one package, so it proposed a treaty of friendship that required the two countries to refrain from the use of force in dispute resolution, not to interfere in each other`s internal affairs, not to participate in the settlement of their disputes and to renounce military alliances directed against each other. Pakistan wanted to focus on issues as immediate as the release of prisoners of war, the withdrawal of troops and the resumption of diplomatic relations. It rejected the Indian proposal on the grounds that it would imply a lasting adoption of the partition of Kashmir and the withdrawal of the UN Kashmir dispute. In the end, during the Shimla final, Gandhi evolved as a swing factor between strength and accommodating postures. The alternative of calling Bhutto`s bluff and leaving without agreement, Gandhi and Haksar were deemed too expensive after India`s dramatic triumph in 1971. The self-limitation that underpinned India`s attitude was all too noticeable to the Pakistanis.
Ahmed, their negotiator, later noted that “India`s excessive fear of avoiding the failure of the talks at all costs has become its great handicap,” while it held “all the negotiating tokens.” Haksar later noted that “force negotiations” are part of the diplomatic currency. But negotiating with someone weak is even more difficult. On July 2, 1972, the two countries reached an agreement. The main clauses of the Simla agreement are the most important: this agreement, commonly known as the Simla Pact, was born out of the war between the two countries in 1971 over developments in the eastern wing of Pakistan.