The Paris Agreement (the Paris Agreement)  is an agreement within the framework of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) that deals with the reduction, adaptation and financing of greenhouse gas emissions and was signed in 2016. The language of the agreement was negotiated by representatives of 196 States Parties at the 21st UNFCCC Conference of parties held at Le Bourget, near Paris, France, and agreed on 12 December 2015.   Since February 2020, all 196 UNFCCC members have signed the agreement and 189 have left.  Of the seven countries that are not parties to the law, Iran and Turkey are the only major emitters. Adaptation issues were at the forefront of the paris agreement. Collective long-term adaptation objectives are included in the agreement and countries must be accountable for their adaptation measures, making adaptation a parallel element of the mitigation agreement.  Adaptation objectives focus on improving adaptive capacity, resilience and vulnerability limitation.  The Paris Agreement reaffirms the obligations of the UNFCCC by industrialized countries; the COP`s decision attached to the agreement extends the target of $100 billion per year until 2025 and calls for a new target that, in addition, “extends over $100 billion a year.” The agreement also broadens the donor base beyond developed countries by encouraging other countries to provide “voluntary” support. China, for example, pledged $3 billion in 2015 to help other developing countries.
The fact that the major economies are not achieving their objectives will revive ancestral arguments about who plays a fair role and who is obliged to do more. And it will cast a shadow over the presentation of new commitments in the 2020s. What will be important if countries increase their targets, if they do not even meet their current targets? From 2 to 15 December 2019, a COP 25 marathon was held in Madrid, Spain, during which Chile retained the presidency. Governments reiterated an earlier request to the parties to express their “most ambitious ambitions possible” when presenting a new round of NDCs in 2020, but they again failed to adopt rules on international carbon trading, in accordance with Article 6, the last important element of the “regulatory framework” for the implementation of the Paris Agreement. In addition, vulnerable developing countries have become increasingly dissatisfied with the scarcity of resources available to them to cope with worsening climate effects. According to the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), temperatures are expected to rise by 3.2oC by the end of the 21st century, based solely on the current climate commitments of the Paris Agreement. To limit the increase in global temperature to 1.5 degrees Celsius, annual emissions must be below 25 Gigaton (Gt) by 2030. With the current commitments of November 2019, emissions by 2030 will be 56 Gt CO2e, twice the environmental target.
To limit the increase in global temperature to 1.5 degrees Celsius, an annual reduction in emissions of 7.6% is needed between 2020 and 2030. The four main emitters (China, the United States, the EU-27 and India) have contributed more than 55% of total emissions over the past decade, excluding emissions due to land use changes such as deforestation.